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AI and its application in personal medicine

By Patrick Lin

As clinicians want to continuously improve patient outcomes, personal medicine is becoming increasingly attractive as the next step in providing patient care and revolutionizing medicine as a whole. In order to achieve the promise of individually tailored medicine in an efficient and economical fashion, a vast foundation of data shared from physicians, research institutions and laboratories must be used. The use of Artificial Intelligence may provide a key opportunity in assisting in the shift to personal medicine.


Personal medicine works by collecting and combining data to craft a unique diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategy for each patient. Currently, physicians use procedures such as DNA sequencing, imaging (MRI, CT scans, ultrasound, etc,) and other multivariate analyses as biomarkers that indicate the biochemical, physiological, and genetic features of an individual. Since AI algorithms excel at analyzing extensive datasets from clinical trials, medical literature, and patient outcomes, a patient's clinical data and unique biomarkers can be leveraged to provide better treatment recommendations. One successful implementation of personal medicine is within genome guided treatment. Researchers implemented an algorithm that used statistical analysis based off of the genomes of the individuals combined with their own clinical data in order to determine a more optimal dose of warfarin.


Beyond this, AI can continue to combine inputs of genetic information, medical records, lifestyle factors, and environmental data to assess risk and improve treatments administered to individuals. A large majority of personal data that may have an impact on health is unaccounted for. Individual health is mostly influenced by external factors beyond medical records such as behavioral, social and psychological factors. The development of apps and wearable devices such as smart watches integrated with AI algorithms can provide alerts to healthcare providers and allow for more opportunities to collect real time monitoring data that may provide insights on further improving individual health. Despite privacy risks, the integration of personal data with medical records further facilitates evidence based decision making and ensures optimal care.


Alongside the development of personal apps and mobile devices, AI can power platforms that deliver personalized health information and educational resources to empower patients. Chatbots such as those developed by Open AI, Google or Microsoft may offer explanations about medical conditions, give treatment options and provide guidance on lifestyle modifications to encourage individuals to become more actively engaged in their healthcare decisions.


The integration of artificial intelligence into personalized medicine has the potential to transform the healthcare landscape, offering unprecedented opportunities for improved diagnostics, treatment selection, and patient outcomes. By harnessing the power of AI, healthcare providers can deliver tailored interventions that optimize patient care. As AI continues to advance, its role in personalized medicine will become increasingly significant, revolutionizing disease management and ushering in a new era of precise and individualized healthcare.





Sources



Schork NJ. Artificial Intelligence and Personalized Medicine. Cancer Treat Res. 2019;178:265-283. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_11. PMID: 31209850; PMCID: PMC7580505.


Jorgensen AL, Prince C, Fitzgerald G, Hanson A, Downing J, Reynolds J, Zhang JE, Alfirevic A, Pirmohamed M. Implementation of genotype-guided dosing of warfarin with point-of-care genetic testing in three UK clinics: a matched cohort study. BMC Med. 2019 Apr 8;17(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12916-019-1308-7. PMID: 30961588; PMCID: PMC6454722.


Seyhan, A.A., Carini, C. Are innovation and new technologies in precision medicine paving a new era in patients centric care?. J Transl Med 17, 114 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1864-9


Johnson KB, Wei WQ, Weeraratne D, Frisse ME, Misulis K, Rhee K, Zhao J, Snowdon JL. Precision Medicine, AI, and the Future of Personalized Health Care. Clin Transl Sci. 2021 Jan;14(1):86-93. doi: 10.1111/cts.12884. Epub 2020 Oct 12. PMID: 32961010; PMCID: PMC7877825.















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